ITO & Other TCOs
Liquid-crystal displays, the multitude of organic light-emitting diode (OLED) variants, and most other flat-panel display technologies rely on transparent conductive oxides (TCOs) such as indium tin oxide (ITO) to transport current and to serve as the anode for each light-emitting element.
Knowing the thickness of the layers that form the display is an important advantage in any thin-film process. For LCDs, determining thickness requires a way to measure the polyimide and liquid-crystal layers in addition to the ITO layer. For OLEDs, a thickness measurement must examine the emitting, injecting, and encapsulation layers.Application Note Request
In measuring any multilayer stack, optical techniques such as spectral reflectance and ellipsometry require the thickness and optical constants (refractive index and k) of every layer in the stack to be either measured or accurately modeled.
When that stack contains an ITO layer, it becomes more challenging to measure and model the other layers. This is because ITO has a unique spectral signal that generally dominates the other layers. The refractive index of the ITO layer must be measured accurately in order to then determine the thickness of the other material layers.
In addition, an accurate refractive index measurement of the ITO layer is important to confirm that the compound used will deliver the right level of conductivity, or to verify the thickness of an ITO film that is built into display glass.
The Filmetrics Solution for Measuring ITO Thickness
The Filmetrics F20-EXR uses spectral reflectance to deliver a simple and affordable solution for accurate ITO measurements. This solution combines a new ITO dispersion model with the wide 400-1700nm wavelength range of the F20-EXR to provide robust, "one-click" analysis of ITO thickness. Once the ITO layer is characterized, the F20-EXR can analyze the remaining display layers.
Whether you are involved in basic research or display manufacturing, Filmetrics can deliver the capabilities you need to measure…Liquid crystal layers
- Polyimide, hardcoat, and liquid crystal thickness
- Emission, injection, buffer, and encapsulation
For non-patterned samples, consider the Filmetrics F20 family of film-measurement instruments. For patterned films, the Filmetrics F40 for measuring film thickness has found wide use in display applications.
Filmetrics offers free trial measurements of ITO and other TCO film samples, with results typically available in 1-2 days. Contact our thin-film experts to discuss your display material and TCO measurement application.
Thickness Measurement Example
In this example, we successfully measure an ITO film deposited on borosilicate glass (BSG). By using the F10-RTA-EXR in conjunction with Filmetrics’ proprietary ITO dispersion model, one can easily determine the thickness, refractive index, and extinction coefficient by simultaneously measuring the transmittance and reflectance between 380-1700nm. This extended wavelength range is necessary due to the unusual dispersion seen from ITO films. With the F10-RTA-EXR, ITO films can also be measured on a variety of substrates including silicon, sapphire, glass, or polymers.
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Amorphous & Polysilicon
Measure thickness, crystallinity, and n and k of all forms of amorphous and polycrystalline silicon.
Our F80 Thickness Imaging products are used to measure oxide, STI, and metal CMP processes.
Filmetrics stocks instruments that measure the thousands of dielectric films used throughout industry.
CVD, dielectrics, barrier, PECVD, passivation, insulator, protection, Al2O3, CoO, ZnO, MoO, TiO2, Cr2O3, Nb2O5
Filmetrics systems are used widely in the automotive industry to verify hardcoat and primer thickness.
Acrylic, Automotive industry, Chemical resistance, Clear coating, Decorative coating, Hardcoat, Eyewear, Face shield, Hardcoat, Hardness, Interpenetration Layer, Marring, Ophthalmic lens, Optical quality, Plastic lens, Polycarbonate, Polyester, Siloxane, Primer, Protective film, Scratch resistant, Screen protection, Surface finish, Surface protection, Thermal cure, Top coating, Touch screen, UV coating, UV cure
IC Failure Analysis
The F3-sX is used throughout the chip making industry to measure backside thinning of silicon.
Failure Analysis, FA, Silicon, Si, Integrated circuit, IC, Polishing, Backside failure analysis, Silicon thinning
ITO & Other TCOs
Proprietary analysis algorithms allow one-click measurement of TCO thickness, index, and k.
Indium tin oxide, ITO, tin-doped indium oxide, Transparent conductive oxide, TCO, Display, Front contact, Transparent Electrode, LED, LCD, Solar, Fluorine-doped tin oxide, FTO, TEC, TEC glass, Aluminum zinc oxide, AZO, Aluminum-doped zinc oxide, Zinc oxide, iZO, Indium zinc oxide, IZO, zinc-doped indium oxide
Measure thickness of angioplasty balloons, stent and implant coatings, and many others.
Stents, drug-coated stents, Drug-coating, Balloons, Angioplasty, Parylene, Microfluidic device, Air gap, Catheter, Membranes
Measure thickness, index, and k of metal films up to 50nm thick.
Metallized, Metallization, Foils, Stents, Mirrors, Steel, Stainless Steel, Gold, Nickel, Aluminium, Silver, Cobalt, Zinc, Molybdenum, Titanium, Chrome, Chromium, Niobium, Tungsten, Gallium, Germanium
Measure thickness and index of NPB, AlQ3, PEDOT, P3HT, soluble Teflons, etc…
PLED, AMOLED, Hole Transport (HT), Hole Injection Layer (HIL), Host Materials, anode, cathode, Alq3, NPB, phenylene vinylene, carbazole, thiophene, aniline, styrenesulfonate, phthalocyanine, naphthalene, fluorene, lithium, silver, ITO, calcium
Use the F10-AR to measure reflectance and color, as well as AR and hardcoat layer thicknesses.
eyeglasses, HC, hardcoat, scratch resistant, AR, anti-reflection, reflectance, UV curable, hydrophillic, polycarbonate, high index, CR39, MR-6, MR-7, Trivex
Simply set your parylene-coated sample on the stage of the F3-CS to measure its thickness!
We’ve measured dozens of different resists, and can generate index files for any resist you use.
SU-8, resist, Photoresist, PR, AZ, AZP, ZEP, positive, negative, g-line, i-line, KrF, PMMA, FEP, GRX, KMPR
Measure thickness, porosity, refractive index, and k of your porous silicon films.
Filmetrics offers a full range of products for measuring semiconductor process films.
Refractive Index & k
Measure refractive index and extinction coefficient over wavelengths as wide as 190-1700nm.
n & k, complex, real , imaginary, refractive index, absorption, extinction coefficient, indices, Kramers-Kronig, optical dispersion, dielectric, Lorentz, Cauchy, photoresist, anomalous dispersion, path length
Silicon Wafers & Membranes
We offer tabletop, mapping, and production systems for measuring silicon up to 2mm thick.
Measure CdTe, CdS, CIGS, amorphous-Si, TCOs, anti-reflection (AR) layers, and more...
Copper indium gallium diselenide, CIGS, Cadmium telluride, CdTe, Cad tel,, Amorphous silicon, Amorphous Si, a-Si, Cadmium sulfide, CdS, window layer, buffer layer, Thin-film photovoltaic, Thin-film PV, TFPV, photovoltaics, Solar, Solar cells, Inline, In-situ, Roll-to-roll, R2R, Evaporation, Sputtering, CVD, MOCVD, PECVD, Transparent conductive oxide, TCO, Indium tin oxide, ITO, tin-doped indium oxide
Semiconductor Teaching Labs
More than fifty Filmetrics F20s have been delivered for use in university teaching labs.
Surface Roughness & Finish
3-dimensional surface profile measurements to characterize surface roughness.
Filmetrics systems are widely used in the polymer-films community to measure thickness in-line.
Roll to roll, Roll measurements, Roll systems, Rolling substrate, Roll fed, Roll web, Reel to reel , R2R, Web coater, Autoweb, In-line, In-line monitor, Online thickness, Line monitoring system, Precision measuring tools, Automatic, Feeding, Production, Multipoint, High speed